Thyroid Profile Test

Thyroid disorders are conditions that affect the thyroid gland, a butterfly-shaped gland in the front of the neck. The thyroid has important roles to regulate numerous metabolic processes throughout the body.

There are 2 types of thyroid

  • HYPOTHYROIDISM
  • HYPERTHYROIDISM

HYPOTHYROIDISM

Also called underactive thyroid- is the most common thyroid disorder. It happens when your thyroid gland doesn’t produce enough thyroid hormone, which is essential because thyroid hormone, such as your metabolism. But with low thyroid function, these body processes slow down.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY-

The hormones produced by the thyroid gland are T3 and T. These hormones have an action on almost all parts of the body. The secretion of these hormones is regulated by TSH or thyroid stimulating hormone that is secreted by pituitary gland. The secretion of thyroid hormone occurs only from this particular gland. The presence of iodine and amino acid tyrosine are a must for the production of thyroid hormones.

CAUSES-

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: This is autoimmune disease is the most common cause of hypothyroidism

Medication: certain medication, such as lithium, can cause hypothyroidism

Pregnancy: Hypothyroidism can develop during or after pregnancy

RISK FACTORS

  • There are two main factors to consider Age and Sex. The chances of being hypothyroid increase with age, and they are greater if an individual is a women.
  • Family history of thyroid and any autoimmune disease.
  • Type 1 diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis, or other autoimmune disorder

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

  • Weight gain
  • Fatigue
  • Sensitivity or cold temperature
  • Depression
  • Dry skin
  • Thinning hair
  • Heavy menstrual periods(in women)
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Pain or swelling in joints
  • Constipation
  • High cholesterol levels
  • Muscles weakness

DIAGNOSIS AND TEST- Blood test

  • TSH TEST
  • T4(thyroxin)test
  • Anti-thyroid Microsomal Antibodies Testing (Anti-TPO)

HYPERTHYROIDISM-

Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) is a condition in which the thyroid gland produces the high level of the hormone thyroxin. In other words, it can be called as overactive thyroid.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY-

In hyperthyroidism, serum T3 usually increases more than does T4, probably because of increased secretion of T3 as well as the conversion of T4 to T3 in peripheral tissues. In some cases, only T3 is elevates(T3 toxicosis).

CAUSES

  • Excess iodine, a key ingredient in T4 and T3
  • Thyroiditis or inflammation of the thyroid, which causes T4 and T3 to leak out of the gland
  • Tumours of the ovaries or testes
  • Benign tumours of the thyroid or pituitary gland
  • Large amount of tetraiodothyronine take through dietary supplement or medication.

RISK FACTORS

  • Family history of thyroid disease
  • Pernicious anaemia, a condition caused by a vitamin B12 deficiency
  • Type1 diabetes
  • Eating large amount of food containing iodine.
  • Pregnant within the past 6 months.

SIGN AND SYMPTOMS

  • Fatigue or muscle weakness
  • Weight loss
  • Hand Tremors
  • Mood Swings
  • Rapid Heartbeat
  • Skin dryness
  • Nervousness or anxiety

DIAGNOSIS AND TEST


Blood test-

  • TSH TEST
  • T4(thyroxin)test
  • T4 test