Diabetes Profile Test

It is a metabolic disorder by high glucose level due to a decreased ability or complete inability of the tissues to utilize carbohydrates, accompanied by changes in the metabolism of fat, protein, water and electrolytes. The hormone insulin, produced by the beta cells of the Islets of langerhans of pancreas.

The prevalence sod diabetes is increasing worldwide, according to “World Health Statistics” released by WHO in 2012, over 1 in 10 men and women aged 25 years and above have high blood sugar.

CLASSIFICATION

TYPE 1 DIABETES

It is of relatively infrequent occurred and generally seen prior to the age of 20years although it may occur at any age. The disease usually has an abrupt onset and the abnormally of carbohydrate metabolism in server due to lack of endogenous insulin to control blood glucose level.

TYPE 2 DIABETES

It is also called as lifestyle disorder. A combination of insulin resistance and Beta cell failure. Insulin level may be normal, low or elevated but are unable to overcome insulin resistance or decreased tissue sensitivity ti insulin causing hyperglycemia.

  • MALNUTRITION RELATED DIABETES MELLITUS(MRDM)
  • Fibro Calculous Pancreatic Diabetes (FCPD)
  • Protein Deficient Diabetes Mellitus( PDDM)
  • IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE(GTT)
  • GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS(GDM)

STATISTICAL RISK CLASSES

  • LATENT DIABETES
  • POTENTIAL DIABETES

FACTOR EFFECTING

  • Heredity
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Obesity
  • Dietary factors
  • Infection
  • Stress
  • Growth hormone
  • Gestational diabetes
  • Thyroid hormone

SYMPTOMS

  • Polyuria or increased urination due to large volume of urine.
  • Polydipsia or increased thirst due to excessive water loss
  • Polyphagia or increased hunger due to failure to utilize food for body nourishment of the body.
  • General weakness
  • Decreased ability of wound healing.
  • Breathing may be deep and rapid.

SCREENING AND DIAGNOSIS

Screening for diabetes is advisable for all individual above 45years of age, and youth who are overweight or obese and have two more risk factors. Diagnoses is on the basis of symptoms combined with laboratory tests.

  • BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL
  • GLYCOSURIA
  • KETONURIA
  • ORAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST
  • GLYVOSYLATED HAEMOGLOBIN(HbA1C)

LONG TERM COMPLECATION OF DIABETES

  • Macrovaccular disorder
  • Microvascular disorders
  • Nephropathy
  • Retinopathy
  • Neuropathy