It is a metabolic disorder by high glucose level due to a decreased ability or complete inability of the tissues to utilize carbohydrates, accompanied by changes in the metabolism of fat, protein, water and electrolytes. The hormone insulin, produced by the beta cells of the Islets of langerhans of pancreas.
The prevalence sod diabetes is increasing worldwide, according to “World Health Statistics” released by WHO in 2012, over 1 in 10 men and women aged 25 years and above have high blood sugar.
It is of relatively infrequent occurred and generally seen prior to the age of 20years although it may occur at any age. The disease usually has an abrupt onset and the abnormally of carbohydrate metabolism in server due to lack of endogenous insulin to control blood glucose level.
It is also called as lifestyle disorder. A combination of insulin resistance and Beta cell failure. Insulin level may be normal, low or elevated but are unable to overcome insulin resistance or decreased tissue sensitivity ti insulin causing hyperglycemia.
Screening for diabetes is advisable for all individual above 45years of age, and youth who are overweight or obese and have two more risk factors. Diagnoses is on the basis of symptoms combined with laboratory tests.